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Types of Cancer Treated at Tanner Cancer Care

Every day, Tanner Cancer Care’s multidisciplinary team of cancer experts diagnose and treat a wide array of cancers right here in Carrollton, close to home for our patients in west Georgia and east Alabama.

Some of the most common types of cancer treated at Tanner Cancer Care include:

Bladder cancer – Bladder cancer starts when cells that make up the urinary bladder start to grow out of control. As more cancer cells develop, they can form a tumor and, with time, spread to other parts of the body. The most common type of bladder cancer is transitional cell carcinoma, also called urothelial carcinoma. Learn more about bladder cancer >

Bone cancer – Bone cancer is rare in adults. It typically occurs in children and teens, but sometimes bone cancer is diagnosed in elderly adults. It starts in the cells that make up the bone. Cancer starts when cells begin to grow out of control. Cells in nearly any part of the body can become cancer and can spread to other parts of the body. Most often when an adult with cancer is told they have cancer in their bones, the oncologist is talking about a cancer that has spread to the bones from somewhere else. Learn more about bone cancer >

Breast cancer – Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast begin to grow out of control. These cells usually form a tumor that can often be seen on an X-ray such as a mammogram or felt as a lump. The tumor is malignant if the cells can grow into surrounding tissues or spread, or metastasize, to distant areas of the body. Breast cancer occurs mostly in women, though men also can get breast cancer. Learn more about breast cancer >

Cervical cancer – Cervical cancer starts in the cells lining the cervix — the lower part of the uterus (womb). This is sometimes called the uterine cervix. The fetus grows in the body of the uterus (the upper part). The cervix connects the body of the uterus to the vagina (birth canal). Learn more about cervical cancer >

Colorectal cancer – Colorectal cancer is a cancer that starts in the colon or the rectum. These cancers can also be named colon cancer or rectal cancer, depending on where they start. Colon cancer and rectal cancer are often grouped together because they have many features in common. Learn more about colorectal cancer >

Esophageal cancer – Cancer of the esophagus (also called esophageal cancer) starts in the inner layer (the mucosa) and grows outward (through the submucosa and the muscle layer). Since two types of cells can line the esophagus, there are two main types of esophageal cancer: squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Learn more about esophageal cancer >

Gallbladder cancer – The gallbladder helps digest food, but you don't need it to live. Gallbladder cancers are rare and nearly all of them are adenocarcinomas. An adenocarcinoma is a cancer that starts in gland-like cells that line many surfaces of the body, including the inside the digestive system. Learn more about gallbladder cancer >

Hodgkin lymphoma – Hodgkin lymphoma (Hodgkin disease) is a cancer that starts in white blood cells called lymphocytes. Lymphocytes reside in the lymph system, part of the immune system that helps fight infections and other diseases. The lymph system also helps control the flow of fluids in the body. There are two main types of lymphoma: Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Learn more about Hodgkin lymphoma >

Kidney cancer – Kidney cancer is a cancer that starts in the kidneys. The kidneys’ main job is to filter the blood coming in from the renal arteries to remove excess water, salt and waste products. These substances become urine. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) — also known as renal cell cancer or renal cell adenocarcinoma — is by far the most common type of kidney cancer. About 9 out of 10 kidney cancers are renal cell carcinomas. Other types include transitional cell carcinomas, Wilms tumors and renal sarcomas. Learn more about kidney cancer >

Laryngeal cancer and hypopharyngeal cancer – Laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers start in the lower part of the throat. Cancers that start in the larynx are called laryngeal cancers. Cancers that start in the hypopharynx are called hypopharyngeal cancers. Almost all cancers in the larynx or hypopharynx develop from thin, flat cells called squamous cells. Most squamous cell cancers of the larynx and hypopharynx start as a pre-cancer called dysplasia. When seen under a microscope, these cells look abnormal but not quite like cancer cells. Most of the time, dysplasia doesn’t turn into cancer, but sometimes it will progress to carcinoma in situ or CIS. CIS is the earliest form of cancer. Learn more about laryngeal cancer >

Leukemia – Leukemias are cancers that start in cells that would normally develop into different types of blood cells. Most often, leukemia starts in early forms of white blood cells, but some leukemias start in other blood cell types. There are several types of leukemia, which are divided based mainly on whether the leukemia is acute (fast growing) or chronic (slower growing), and whether it starts in myeloid cells or lymphoid cells. Learn more about leukemia >

Liver cancer – Only cancers that start in the liver are called liver cancer. The liver is made up mainly of cells called hepatocytes. It also is made up of other types of cells, including cells that line its blood vessels and cells that line small tubes in the liver called bile ducts. The bile ducts extend out of the liver and carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder or directly to the intestines. These different types of cells in the liver can form several types of malignant (cancerous) and benign (non-cancerous) tumors. These tumors have different causes, are treated differently and have a different prognosis. Learn more about liver cancer >

Lung cancer – Lung cancer starts when cells of the lung become abnormal and begin to grow out of control. There are several different types of lung cancer. Knowing which type you have is vital because it affects your treatment options and prognosis. Non-small cell lung cancer is the most common type of lung cancers and make up about 85 percent of diagnosed cases. Small cell lung cancer makes up 10 to15 percent of cases. Fewer than 5 percent of lung cancers are lung carcinoid tumors. Learn more about lung cancer >

Mesothelioma - Malignant mesothelioma is cancer that starts in cells in the lining of certain parts of the body, most commonly the linings of the chest or abdomen. A layer of specialized cells called mesothelial cells lines the inside of your chest, abdomen and the space around your heart. These cells also cover the outer surface of most of your internal organs. The lining formed by these cells is called the mesothelium. Mesothelial tumors can start in any of these linings. These tumors can be cancer (malignant) or not cancer (benign). A cancerous tumor of the mesothelium is called a malignant mesothelioma. Learn more about mesothelioma >

Multiple myeloma – Multiple myeloma is a cancer of plasma cells. Normal plasma cells are found in the bone marrow and are an important part of the immune system. When plasma cells become cancerous and grow out of control, this is called multiple myeloma. In multiple myeloma, the overgrowth of plasma cells in the bone marrow can crowd out normal blood-forming cells, leading to low blood counts. Learn more about multiple myeloma >

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma – Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a cancer that starts in cells called lymphocytes, which are part of the body’s immune system. Lymphomas can start anywhere in the body where lymph tissue is found. There is another main type of lymphoma, called Hodgkin lymphoma, which is treated differently. Learn more about non-hodgkin lymphoma >

Oral and oropharyngeal cancer – Oral cancer is cancer that starts in the mouth. Oropharyngeal cancer starts in the oropharynx — the part of the throat just behind the mouth. Most cancers that form here are a type of cancer called squamous cell carcinoma, but other types of cancer and benign growths and tumors can also form. Learn more about oral cancer >

Ovarian cancer - Ovarian cancers were previously believed to begin only in the ovaries, reproductive glands found only in females, but recent evidence suggests that many ovarian cancers may actually start in the cells in the far (distal) end of the fallopian tubes. The ovaries are mainly made up of three kinds of cells. Each type of cell can develop into a different type of tumor: epithelial tumors, germ cell tumors and stromal tumors. Learn more about ovarian cancer >

Pancreatic cancer - Pancreatic cancer starts when cells in the pancreas start to grow out of control. The pancreas is an organ that sits behind the stomach. The pancreas secretes enzymes that aid digestion and hormones that help regulate the metabolism of sugars. Pancreatic cancer usually begins in the cells that produce these enzymes. Learn more about pancreatic cancer >

Prostate cancer – Prostate cancer begins when cells in the prostate gland start to grow uncontrollably. The prostate is a gland found only in males. It makes some of the fluid that is part of semen. Almost all prostate cancers are adenocarcinomas. Other types include sarcomas, small cell carcinomas, neuroendocrine tumors and transitional cell carcinomas.Skin cancer – Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer. The main types of skin cancer are squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Melanoma is much less common than the other types but much more likely to invade nearby tissue and spread to other parts of the body. Most deaths from skin cancer are caused by melanoma. Learn more about prostate cancer >

Stomach cancer – Stomach cancer, also called gastric cancer, begins in the stomach. Stomach cancers tend to develop slowly over many years. Before a true cancer develops, pre-cancerous changes often occur in the inner lining (mucosa) of the stomach. These early changes rarely cause symptoms and therefore often go undetected. There are several types of stomach cancers but 90 to 95 percent are adenocarcinomas, which develop from the cells that form the innermost lining of the stomach. Learn more about stomach cancer >

Testicular cancer – Testicular cancer is cancer that starts in the testicles, which are part of the male reproductive system. Testicles make male hormones such as testosterone and sperm, the cells needed to fertilize a female egg cell to begin a pregnancy. The testicles are made up of many types of cells, each of which can develop into one or more types of cancer. Doctors can determine the type of cancer by looking at the cells under a microscope. Learn more about testicular cancer >

Thyroid cancer – Thyroid cancer develops in the thyroid gland, which is below the thyroid cartilage (Adam’s apple) in the front part of the neck. The main types of thyroid cancer are differentiated, medullary and anaplastic. Different cancers develop from the two main type of cells in the thyroid gland—follicular and parafollicular cells. The differences are important because they affect the seriousness and type of treatment. Learn more about thyroid cancer >

Uterine cancer – Uterine cancer begins in the uterus (womb). Uterine sarcoma is a rare cancer that starts in the muscle and supporting tissues of the uterus. More than 95 percent of uterine cancers are carcinomas that begin in the epithelial cells that line or cover the uterus. These include cervical carcinoma, endometrial carcinoma and carcinosarcoma. Several types of benign (not cancerous) tumors, called fibroid tumors, can also develop in the connective tissues of the uterus. Learn more about uterine cancer >

Vaginal cancer – Vaginal cancer begins in the vagina, which starts at the cervix (the lower part of the uterus) and opens at the vulva (external female genitals). There are many different types of vaginal cancer. The most common is called squamous cell carcinoma and it starts in the lining of the vagina. Learn more about vaginal cancer >

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